Income Protection insurance provides financial support in the event that you are not able to work (e.g. due to an illness or an accident). Income Protection policies do not currently cover redundancy and unemployment.
Income Protection insurance has a number of features like a term and deferral period. If your employer provided sick pay for three months, the deferral period would be three months. Even if you claim on the policy, the term continues, which means if you are ill again you can claim again. Obviously subject to T&Cs but in principle Income Protection is not a one claim policy if the conditions for a claim arise more than once or several times.